Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals.
Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies.
In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx. We observed increased levels of cellular oncogenic miRNAs and decreased levels of tumor-suppressor miRNAs in plasma of infected individuals exhibiting oral KSHV shedding. These changes in host oncomiRs were exacerbated in people co-infected with HIV, and partially reversed after 2 years of anti-retroviral therapy.
We also detected KSHV miRNAs in plasma of KSHV infected individuals and determined that their expression levels correlated with KSHV plasma viremia. Deep sequencing revealed an expected profile of small cellular RNAs in plasma, with miRNAs constituting the major RNA biotype. In contrast, the composition of small RNAs in exosomes was highly atypical with high levels of YRNA and low levels of miRNAs. Mass spectrometry analysis of the exosomes revealed eleven different peptides derived from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and small RNA sequencing confirmed widespread plasmodium co-infections in the Ugandan cohorts.
Proteome analysis indicated an exosomal protein profile consistent with erythrocyte and keratinocyte origins for the plasma exosomes.
A strong correlation was observed between the abundance of Plasmodium proteins and cellular markers of malaria. As Plasmodium falciparum is an endemic pathogen in Uganda, our study shows that co-infection with other pathogens, such as KSHV, can severely impact the small RNA repertoire, complicating the use of exosome miRNAs as biomarkers of disease.
Read more: PLOS One
Copyright: © 2018 Minako Ikoma, Soren Gantt, Corey Casper, Yuko Ogata, Qing Zhang, Ryan Basom, Michael R. Dyen, Timothy M. Rose, Serge Barcy. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.