Which doctor first found that Anopheles mosquitoes transmitted malaria?
The first person to show conclusively that malaria could be transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes was Ronald Ross (later knighted in 1911 for his services to medicine).
Working in the Presidency General Hospital in Calcutta (Sir Ronald was born in India and joined the Indian Medical Services in 1881 after studying medicine in London), he observed malaria parasites in the salivary glands of mosquitoes that had been fed on infected birds. This was in 1898, and he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology in 1902 based on this discovery. A medical board in 1900 later confirmed his findings, and provided recommendations for the control of malaria, some of which were instrumental in limiting the impact of the disease on workers employed to construct the Panama Canal.
The parasite that causes malaria, of the genus Plasmodium, had been identified in 1880 by the French doctor Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, who had observed the parasites in the red blood cells of infected patients in Algeria.